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By Harald Fritzsch, Murray Gell-Mann

At the present time it's identified that the atomic nuclei are composed of smaller materials, the quarks. A quark is usually certain with different quarks, forming a baryon or with an antiquark, forming a meson. The quark version used to be first postulated in 1964 by way of Murray Gell-Mann — who coined the identify “quark” from James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake — and by means of George Zweig, who then labored at CERN. within the current conception of sturdy interactions — Quantum Chromodynamics proposed through H Fritzsch and Gell-Mann in 1972 — the forces that bind the quarks jointly are as a result trade of 8 gluons.

On the fiftieth anniversary of the quark version, this worthwhile quantity seems to be again on the advancements and achievements within the straight forward particle physics that eventuated from that lovely version. Written through a world crew of exclusive physicists, every one of whom have made significant advancements within the box, the quantity presents a vital evaluate of the current kingdom to the lecturers and researchers.

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1. Introduction This year is the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of quarks, and last year was the fortieth anniversary of the birth of QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics). QCD developed in two phases, the first involving the discovery of quarks, the second specifying the nature of their interactions. These phases arose from two very different traditions, that of Rutherford and Bohr, and that of Einstein. The first was grounded in observation, and the startling interpretation of what was observed, the second in a triumph of the imagination made possible by the power of quantum field theory.

Figure 7 shows the Dalitz plot for K − + p → Λ + K + K. ¯ long thin vertical pencil of K K events at the left edge of phase space clearly indicating the existence of the φ. So far, so good. But now look at Fig. 8 where the 3-π mass distribution is displayed. There is no statistically significant evidence for a peak, so there is no evidence for the decay φ → π + +π − +π 0 , which I thought should be dominant. This decay channel is expected to proceed through the chain of reactions φ → ρ + π, followed by ρ → π + π.

Page 40 February 6, 2015 9:10 BC 9249 — 50 Years of Quark — Chee Hok Concrete Quarks zweig˙corrected˙again 41 (1) Hadrons have point fermion constituents with baryon number 1/3. (2) There is a correspondence between leptons, the point particles of the weak interactions, and aces, the point particles of the strong interactions. q This correspondence was just a hunch, in the Einstein tradition. (3) The ultimate number of constituents was unknown. Representing them by ♣, ♥, ♠ and ♦ was not general enough.

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