Download Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 45 by Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman PDF

By Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman

The full sequence might be within the library of each crew operating in geophysics

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2. 5 FIG. 2. U . A 2-D columnar crystal (in reality, a rectangle) generated by Eq. 14) with a = 2 and c = 1. We note that the cross section of a finite circular cylinder through its axis is a rectangle. If we can find an equation closely approximating the rectangle, then rotating the resulting curve along its long axis will yield a close approximation of a finite circular column. 14) where x and z are the common Cartesian coordinates; a and c are the half-lengths in the x and z direction, respectively; and s is an adjustable positive parameter that can be set as small as we wish (but never equal to zero)^ to closely fit the sharp comers of a rectangle.

For example, Braza et al. (1986) achieved this on a two-dimensional cylinder by performing a rotation of the cylinder along its axis. 3. The directions of the perturbation are opposite each other in the regions A and B so as to form a shear along the central plane of the flow. As we shall see, at high enough Reynolds numbers, this perturbation will generate a periodic eddy shedding pattern in the simulated flow. On the other hand, the perturbation will be damped out in a short time if the Reynolds number is low.

33) z=zm where Zm is the z-coordinate of the maximum point. 34 PAO K. 37) may be subject to errors and deviations and may be smaller than 1 occasionally. In this case we have to set k = 1. 4. Sometimes it is desirable to calculate x^ and Zm from a given combination of a, C, and k. 4. 3. Examples and Discussion Using the above steps, I have tried to fit many conical graupel and hailstones documented in the literature. 20 shows two examples taken from Mason (1971) and one from Iribame and Cho (1979).

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