Download Aha! Aha! Insight by Martin Gardner PDF

By Martin Gardner

The subsequent books are a hundred% IDENTICAL:

"Aha! perception by means of Gardner, Martin". ISBN: 071671017X
&
"Aha! Aha! perception by means of Gardner, Martin". ISBN: 0894540017

Don't be fooled by way of different ISBN's - the covers are exact and flipping via either books, the pages are identical.

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Extra resources for Aha! Aha! Insight

Sample text

In the example of the coin toss, you observe that the first few tosses always end up heads. 2. Formulate a hypothesis. Your hypothesis after flipping head after head? That the coin isn’t fair. The hypothesis serves as the scientist’s starting point; maybe it’s right, and maybe it’s wrong. They key is to do enough testing to find out. 3. Gather additional data to test this hypothesis. In the coin example, you gather additional data by tossing the coin several thousand more times. Repeating one type of test ad infinitum — exhaustively flipping a coin, for example — and getting a particular result isn’t good enough.

Here’s how it could happen: If a gene with negative effects is present in the same critter as a gene with positive effects, the frequency of the bad gene can increase as it rides the evolutionary coattails of the really great new gene. Suppose that two mutations occur simultaneously in different locations on an organism’s DNA: one resulting in a gene that is slightly harmful and another resulting in a gene that is advantageous. The slightly harmful gene may increase in frequency simply because it’s along for the ride.

But eating cat food isn’t an adaptation (the birds haven’t evolved to eat out of cat dishes); it’s opportunistic. The food’s available, and the cat . . well, he’s probably trapped behind a patio door. For more about adaptive characters, go to Chapter 5. The Study of Evolution, Post-Darwin Darwin had only a vague idea of what genes were and didn’t know squat about DNA, but he hit the evolutionary nail on the head. Today, scientists know that the process of evolution by natural selection occurs pretty much the way Darwin first proposed it: Natural selection results in changes over time in any given population, and good genes (those that make the organism more fit — that is, more successful at surviving long enough to reproduce) become more frequent over time.

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