By Bernard Stonehouse
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Additional info for Animal Marking: Recognition Marking of Animals in Research
Facial features of the great apes are often recognised easily, and can be linked with an appropriate and memorable name. Some appropriate methods of marking rodents and other small mammals will be found in the chapters by Lane-Petter and by Twigg (chapters 4 and 12). Leg rings, often used in field studies, tend to fall off or cause local damage (Twigg, 1970). 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm wide above the interphalangeal joint of the inside hind digit of fox squirrels. Coded toe clipping is a permanent and easy method of marking, but aesthetically unacceptable for use in zoos; loss of digits by fighting and other injury may cause misidentification.
Bird banding at New York Zoo. Int. , 8, 402. Berger, D. D. and Mueller, H. C. (1960). Band retention. Bird-Banding, 31, 90-91. Clark, D. (1971). Branding as a marking technique for amphibia and reptiles. Copeia 1971, (1), 148-151. Cooley, M. E. (1948). Improved toe-tag for marking fox squirrels. J. Wild/. Mgmt, 12,213. Marking zoo animals for identification 33 Craighead, J. , Woodgerd, W. and Craighead, F. C. (1960). Trapping, immobilising and colour-marking Grizzly bears. Trans. 25th North Am Wild!.
Special equipment and skill are required, but are becoming readily available through increasing agricultural use. A wide variety of animals from hairless elephants to hairy mice, and including beavers, cetaceans and seals, have been freeze branded successfully (Pienaar, 1970; Haddow, 1972; Zurowski, 1970), and the method is likely to be of increasing use in zoos as it becomes more widely known. Horn branding This is the only form of heat branding now used in most zoos. The area of horn subject to least wear, usually the inner curvature, is branded (Aldous and Craighead, 1958; Tijskens, 1968).