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By Daniel J. Klionsky

Klionsky (life sciences, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor) defines "autophagy" as "a approach within which the phone quite often undergoes membrane rearrangement to sequester a component of cytoplasm, carry it to a degradative organelle and recycle the macromolecular components. He argues that, within the conventional view of organelles as mobile rubbish disposals, the continuing force towards homeostatis among telephone dying and synthesis has been neglected. His creation additionally lists the recent nomenclature for 27 autophagy-related genes. In 22 different chapters, overseas members evaluation autophagy in organisms from yeast to people and its roles in metabolism, getting older, melanoma and neuromuscular illnesses. a few photos are in colour.

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Salt glands. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 1994; 26:473-479. 21. Araki N, Takashima Y, Makita T. Redistribution and fate of colchicine-induced alkaline phosphatase in rat hepatocytes: possible formation of autophagosomes whose membrane is derived from excess plasma membrane. Histochem Cell Biol 1995; 104:257-265. 22. Dunn Jr WA. Studies on the mechanisms of autophagy: Formation of the autophagic vacuole. J Cell Biol 1990; 110:1923-1933. 23. Yokota S, Himeno M, Kato K. Degradation of excess peroxisomes by cellular autophagy: Immunocytochemical and biochemical analysis.

Bar length, 250 nm. D, modified from ref. 4. single delimiting membrane (see below). 4 The contents of the autophagosome is, in general, completely normal cytoplasm (Fig. 4A-C), the nuclei usually (but not always, cf. ref. 66) being excluded. 27 Cytosolic enzymes are present at the same concentrations in autophagosomes as in cytoplasm,6,59,60,67 as are most other cellular proteins,27 consistent with autophagic sequestration being basically a bulk uptake mechanism. 27,56 The sequestering phagophores would thus seem to steer away from solid cytoskeletal structures as they cut through the cytoplasm.

Alternatively, the autophagosomal outer membrane elements in the hybrid organelle may be selectively internalized by a microautophagic invagination process, thus becoming part of the lumenal contents of the organelle, like the inner autophagosomal membrane (see chapter 8). To what extent the autophagosomal membrane components are eventually degraded or recycled, is not clear. The availability of highly purified autophagosomes27 has greatly facilitated the analysis of their structure and composition.

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