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GEOL ODI C STRUCTURES Plunging folds. Plunging folds have been tipped by tectonic force s and have a hinge line not horizontal in the axial plane. The angle between the horizontal and the hinge line is called the plunge and, like dip, varies from less than 1 degree to 90 degrees . Plunging folds characteristically show a series of V patterns on a bedrock surface (Figure 16). Structural domes and basins. A structural dome, a variety of anticline, is a feature in which the central area has been warped an d uplifted and all the surrounding rock units dip away from the center.
IGNEOUS ROCKS Types of volcanoes . There are three kinds of volcanoes : composite , shield, and cinder cone . Composite volcanoes (stratovolcanoes) have been the sources of some of the more famous and destructive eruptions, such as thos e of Mount St. Helens, Vesuvius, and Krakatoa . Built up over millions of years, they consist of alternating layers of lava and pyroclasti c debris that can approach slopes as steep as 45 degrees. They are characterized by long periods of dormancy, or inactivity, that can last for up to hundreds of thousands of years .
These are especially useful to the geologist for deter mining that the rock was formed on the ocea n floor and for indicating the base of the flo w (Figure 9). Intrusive Rock Type s Intrusive rocks crystallize from magmas that have been intruded into the earth's crust at depths far below the surface. These intrusions are then usually exposed millions or billions of years later through th e processes of uplift, mountain-building, and erosion . Other intrusive rocks are discovered through deep-drilling programs .