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By Frederick Charles Copleston

Among them, the activities of Logical Positivism and Existentialism ruled philosophy in Europe for far of the 20 th century, and the impression they exerted can nonetheless be felt this present day. during this book Frederick Copleston offers an in depth and goal advent to those hugely arguable parts of contemporary suggestion. initially written in 1956, and revised in 1972, it explores the paintings of some of the most crucial thinkers of the 20 th century, together with Ayer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Sartre and Camus. Written in a transparent and available kind, this booklet should still end up worthy to a person trying to find a common advent to both of those influential philosophical pursuits.

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The language in which the -52- logical positivist expresses his attack on metaphysics may not be the language of Kant; but the substance remains the same. CONCLUSION It may be said that all this is very trivial, on the ground that every philosopher nowadays must take the validity of Kantian criticism as a starting-point. But, apart from the fact that the statement that every philosopher must presuppose the validity of the Kantian criticism of metaphysics is not a self-evident proposition, the metaphysician cannot escape the necessity of metaphysical argument, even if he tries to conceal the use of such argument.

This would not, in my opinion, in any way affect the metaphysical principle of causality, which, as such, has to do with existence rather than behaviour; but my point is that the claim of the phenomenalistic analysis of causality to be a fully adequate analysis may easily appear to gain support from empirical science. And, in this sense, it may appear that empirical science lends support to the ruling out of metaphysics of the classical type. A further point is that the relation of finite to infinite being cannot be of exactly the same type as the relation of dependence of one phenomenon on another: -36- the former is, ex hypothesi, unique.

But this is a question of classifying empirical events, not of arguing about values. Ultimately the two men will either differ on a matter of fact or they will differ on a question of valuation in such a way that neither can prove to the other that his view is wrong. htm of murder. For all that remains then is to see whether the definition covers euthanasia or not. But if they differ in their definitions of murder, further argument is scarcely possible. John can try to " persuade " James, by working on his emotions, or James may have recourse to abuse of John, calling him, for example, " hard-hearted "; but working on someone's emotions or abusing him is not " argument," even if argument often tends to such degeneration.

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