By Geoffrey Davies
The choice of car physique fabrics is prime to the alternative of fabrication process, and the features and function of the ultimate car or part. the standards in the back of those offerings contain the various key technological and layout matters dealing with car engineers this present day. fabrics for vehicle our bodies provides special updated details on fabric applied sciences for the auto undefined, embracing steels (including high-strength steels) aluminium, plastics, magnesium, hydro-forming and composite physique panels. insurance additionally contains: fabrics processing; formability; welding and becoming a member of; anti-corrosion applied sciences; plus a finished attention of the consequences of fabrics choice on those techniques. facing the entire meeting approach from uncooked fabric to construction, all the way through to recycling on the finish of a vehicle's existence, this e-book is the basic source for training engineers, designers, analysts and scholars keen on the layout and specification of motorcar our bodies and elements. * updated details on modern autobody fabrics * overseas case stories, examples and terminology * totally illustrated all through, with examples from Honda, Ferrari, Lotus, BMW and Audi
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Additional info for Materials for Automobile Bodies
6. This is seen in the example of a constant-sectioned towing hook shown at (a). As the loading acts in the plane of the section the elements chosen can be plane. Choosing the optimum mesh density (size and distribution) of elements is a skill which is gradually learned with experience. Five meshes are chosen at (b) to show how different levels of accuracy can be obtained. The next step is to calculate several values at various key points – using basic bending theory as a check. In this example nearly all the meshes give good displacement match with simple theory but the stress line-up is another story as shown at (c).
Elements should thus be as regular as possible – with triangular ones tending to equilateral and rectangular ones tending to square. Some FEA packages will perform distortion checks by measuring the skewness of the elements when distorted under load. In structural loading beyond the elastic limit of the constituent material an idealized stress/strain curve must be supplied to the FEA program – usually involving a multilinear representation, (h). Design and material utilization 21 When the structural displacements become so large that the stiffness matrix is no longer representational then a ‘large-displacement’ analysis is required.
The significance of bodyweight on fuel consumption, acceleration and emissions control has been outlined already, but to put these in perspective with other relevant factors some of these parameters are illustrated in Fig. 13. 26 Materials for Automobile Bodies ECE/UTAC-barrier (300 mm) Fig. 12 US-Standard FMVSS 214 (40 mph, SINCAP) Offset barrier (top) and side impact simulations (below)6 Waste energy exploitation Intermittent engine shutdown Ancillary components Optimum operating point of the engine Drivetrain efficiency Aerodynamic Rolling resistance of tyres Fig.