Download Quantum Information: An Overview by Gregg Jaeger PDF

By Gregg Jaeger

This ebook supplies an summary for practitioners and scholars of quantum physics and knowledge technological know-how. It presents prepared entry to crucial details on quantum details processing and communique, akin to definitions, protocols and algorithms. Quantum info technological know-how is never present in transparent and concise shape. This e-book brings jointly this data from its quite a few assets. It permits researchers and scholars in more than a few parts together with physics, photonics, solid-state electronics, nuclear magnetic resonance and knowledge know-how, of their utilized and theoretical branches, to have this important fabric without delay handy.

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This gate, . Z= 1 0 0 −1 , induces a change of the phase angle φ of Eq. 14 by π and is identical to the Pauli matrix σ3 . ” A beam-splitter must be supplemented to phase shifters in order to realize a Hadamard gate. 4 Single-qubit gates 17 |0 → |1 , |1 → −|1 . It can also be viewed as a variant “NOT” gate when acting on the elements of the basis {| ,| }, because it interchanges them: | ↔| . The product iXZ is the Y (bit+phase-flip) gate identical to the Pauli matrix σ2 , which has the effect of inverting the qubit state-vector about the origin of the Poincar´e–Bloch sphere, performing “universal state-vector inversion” [357].

For our 20 1 Qubits I D1 A BS A' D2 Fig. 4. An apparatus realizing a discrete two-beam experiment, in which detectors D1 and D2 are placed before the two orthogonal beams (A and A ) can merge. “BS” indicates a 50–50 beam-splitter and “φ” a variable phase-shifter. I A BS BS D1 A' D2 Fig. 5. Apparatus realizing a discrete two-beam experiment, in which detectors D1 and D2 are placed after the two orthogonal beams (A and A ) have merged. This apparatus has the advantage over the original two-slit apparatus of Fig.

0 sin α cos α 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 30 31 Due to the constraints on density matrices, one can make use of the four conve¯ nient real parameters A, B, C and φ such that ρ00 = A, ρ11 = B, ρ01 = Ceiφ , and √ ¯ ρ10 = Ce−iφ , where C ≤ AB. 6, A = B = 12 and C = 0. For a discussion of the underlying mathematics, see [405]. 24) r2 = S02 − S 2 , and P2 = r S0 2 = 1 − (S/S0 )2 . 25) As we show in Chapter 7, the generalization of the Lorentz-group invariant length to multiple-qubit systems, in the product space formed from copies of R41,3 , provides a measure of pure-state entanglement [240].

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