Download Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism by Peter J. Mouginis-Mark, Joy A. Crisp, Jonathan H. Fink PDF

By Peter J. Mouginis-Mark, Joy A. Crisp, Jonathan H. Fink

Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.

distant sensing is an important software for plenty of Earth and planetary scientists. while learning the ambience, the land, the sea ground, or for that topic the surfaces of alternative planets, distant sensing has deepened and elevated our knowing in instant and dramatic methods. this is often very true for volcanologists focused on energetic volcanic methods. Technological advances in accumulating information from a satellite tv for pc or an airplane, even if, additionally require human abilities particular to the medium, and nowhere extra so than in processing and reading information in ways in which are diverse from these talents wanted with a field-oriented strategy. during this quantity at the distant sensing of energetic volcanoes, we make clear and deal with these ameliorations. whilst, we search to stimulate larger interplay among distant sensing experts and box volcanologists, aided by means of the tutorials and historical past details now we have included.Content:

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T h e effects of sulfate aerosol m i x e d with the ash are under study. , 1999b] cloud altitude, and refractive index. 5. C O N T R I B U T I O N S O F T O M S U V SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS T h e T O M S S 0 and ash cloud data have led to signifi­ cant a d v a n c e s in several disciplines, from derivations of eruptive sulfur b u d g e t s and e m i s s i o n rates, to tracking of individual c l o u d s , and assessing global v o l c a n i s m and at­ m o s p h e r i c impacts. T h e T O M S instruments h a v e so far d o c u m e n t e d 7 3 individual eruption clouds since 1979; m a n y of these are included in the s u m m a r y p a p e r by Bluth et al.

1. Validation cases with Brewer instruments. The m o s t successful validation so far m a d e use of the A t m o s ­ p h e r e E n v i r o n m e n t Service B r e w e r s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r site at T o r o n t o , C a n a d a . A n e x p l o s i v e eruption of M o u n t Spurr, A l a s k a , on S e p t e m b e r 17, 1992, p r o d u c e d a sulfur d i o x i d e and ash cloud that drifted across C a n a d a and the northern U . S . (Plate 2). This cloud drifted in a c o m p a c t m a s s for t w o d a y s b e t w e e n B r e w e r stations in western C a n a d a ; the s a m e cloud then w a s sheared by the polar front j e t stream into a long streamer that drifted across T o r o n t o on S e p t e m b e r 19.

Pinatubo as measured on June 16 by the Nimbus-7 TOMS instrument. The four-band matrix inversion method was used to process the data. The highest col­ umn amounts (< 800 matm-cm) ever observed were found in this cloud. KRUEGER ETAL. 37 38 U V R E M O T E S E N S I N G O F V O L C A N I C E M I S S I O N S T O M S m a p . W e c o n c l u d e that the l o w e r spatial resolution of T O M S is not a critical limitation for major volcanic ash p l u m e detection. 2. Optical Depth, Radius, and Mass Retrievals T h e aerosol index defined in E q u a t i o n (4) can b e con­ verted to m a s s of ash using a radiative transfer m o d e l w h e r e ash c l o u d s are explicitly included together with ad­ ditional information about p l u m e altitude, ash particle re­ fractive index, m(X), and size distribution.

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