By W. Hume-Rothery
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Grain-boundary Segregates, Films, and Precipitates The segregation referred to above leads to the solute atoms occupying the distorted sites in the grain boundaries, and does not imply that a definite surface film or precipitate is formed. The data suggest clearly that marked concentration differences may exist between the grain boundary and the interior of the grain. t On annealing iron in either the a- or y-region, impurities accumulate in the grain boundaries, but if the specimen is then heated (or cooled), not too slowly, through the A 3 point, the boundaries migrate, and leave the impurities behind as a network which may sometimes be revealed as "ghost boundaries" by careful etching.
Fig. 6). This variation is thought to result from the recovery time having been insufficient to permit the attainment of an equilibrium structure. 34 THE STRUCTURES OF ALLOYS OF IRON FIG. 5. Three-dimensional dislocation network within sub-grains of α-iron. ) x 26,600. (Crown Copyright Reserved) The above structures refer to pure iron in a relatively strainfree condition. If the metal is then cold-worked slightly, either by rolling or tensile deformation, new dislocations are produced. In specimens deformed at low temperatures, these dislocations are irregular in shape and fairly uniformly distributed but, as the degree of working is raised, the dislocations tend to form S T R U C T U R E S OF I R O N !
STRUCTURES OF I R O N ! REAL CRYSTALS 39 That is to say, the step from x to y in Fig. 8 may be made by two steps in the same direction. The two partial dislocations are separated by a strip of stacking fault in which the atomic arrangement is that of the twin crystals referred to on p. 64. When a dislocation with a Burgers vector along  is of pure screw type, it can move out of the original slip plane (112) because, as shown in Fig. 9, the  direction lies also in the (2Ï1) and (121) planes.